Lloyd Shapley, one of two Americans who were awarded the 2012 Nobel economics prize, is pictured at his home in the Pacific Palisades area of Los Angeles on Monday, Oct. 15, 2012. Mr. Shapley, 89, and Alvin Roth were recognized for their studies on the matchmaking that takes place when doctors are coupled up with hospitals, students with schools and human organs with transplant recipients. The work of the two scholars has sparked a flourishing field of research and helped improve the performance of many markets, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said. Mr. Shapley is a professor emeritus at the University of California at Los Angeles. (AP Photo/Reed Saxon)

Photo by: Reed Saxon

Lloyd Shapley, one of two Americans who were awarded the 2012 Nobel economics prize, is pictured at his home in the Pacific Palisades area of Los Angeles on Monday, Oct. 15, 2012. Mr. Shapley, 89, and Alvin Roth were recognized for their studies on the matchmaking that takes place when doctors are coupled up with hospitals, students with schools and human organs with transplant recipients. The work of the two scholars has sparked a flourishing field of research and helped improve the performance of many markets, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said. Mr. Shapley is a professor emeritus at the University of California at Los Angeles. (AP Photo/Reed Saxon)