INDIANAPOLIS -- The NCAA spent four years studying the use of American Indian nicknames. It took less than a month for the governing body to start backpedaling.
With university presidents threatening lawsuits, complaining about the rationale and openly questioning the Aug.5 decision to ban Indian mascots, logos and nicknames from postseason tournaments, the NCAA has responded with unusual speed in making alterations.
Three schools have won appeals to be removed from the original list of 18 offenders, and more are expected. But that hasn't stopped the torrent of criticism.
"I think anything can be taken to the extreme," Central Michigan president Michael Rao said. "What I think still needs to happen, more than words, is that we need to focus on how people are treated. What's in a name? Not as much as behavior."
From student dorms to administration offices, the NCAA's unprecedented move has touched off a wave of emotions from coast to coast.
Florida State hired a high-powered attorney and threatened legal action to retain its Seminoles nickname. The University of North Dakota, home of the Fighting Sioux, suggested the NCAA breached its contract to play host to a national hockey tournament. Central Michigan criticized the NCAA for ignoring a long-standing agreement between the school and a local tribe permitting the use of Chippewas as its nickname.
Radio talk shows have been inundated with callers chastising the governing body for going too far in the name of political correctness.
On the other hand, some Indian leaders have taken umbrage -- saying the NCAA should have banned all uses of Indian nicknames.
"I think the reaction was a little more than what we expected," NCAA spokesman Erik Christianson said. "But I think everyone realizes this has been a contentious and controversial issue for a long time."
Rao and Florida State president T.K. Wetherell say the NCAA should have expected some consternation.
Both schools had agreements with local tribes to use their nicknames -- an argument the NCAA discounted in its initial press conference announcing the ban. Central Michigan, Florida State and the University of Utah, nicknamed the Utes, all won appeals based on those agreements.
"I spoke with the P.R. director of the tribe and they were concerned that [the NCAA] didn't talk to them," Rao said. "This is a tribe that has been highly successful. ... The decision kind of promotes the idea they need help and can't make decisions for themselves."
American Indians are divided on the issue.
Last September, the University of Pennsylvania's National Annenberg Election Survey showed 90 percent of American Indians did not find the use of "Redskins" by the NFL team offensive, while 9 percent did. The survey polled 768 American Indians in the 48 continental states.
But some want the NCAA to help abolish Indian nicknames altogether.
Vernon Bellecourt, president of the National Coalition on Racism in Sports & Media, has protested nicknames for teams ranging from the Cleveland Indians and Washington Redskins to Florida State's Seminoles. He said the NCAA's reversals have hindered efforts for broader change.
"We think the NCAA is prematurely backpedaling and we have to fault them for it," Bellecourt said. "We have to criticize them for not having open hearings and taking testimony from the Seminole tribe, not talking with the president of the National Indian Education Association."
Some university presidents are upset by what they call the NCAA's inflammatory rhetoric.
In announcing the ban, NCAA president Myles Brand said the 18 schools were deemed to have "hostile" or "abusive" images, mascots or nicknames.
North Dakota president Charles Kupchella wonders why his school was included. The school has had tribal permission to use the nickname -- a position now under review by the tribe. And the logo, Kupchella said, was designed by an American Indian.
"There's nothing disrespectful or abusive about it at all," he said. "We don't have tomahawk chops or mascots doing silly things. The only thing I could come up with is that some people are upset by what other schools do with the nicknames, like saying 'Sioux [stink].' "
Kupchella said school policy is to remove any such derogatory banners.
Other schools are trying to determine why "Warriors" was considered OK by the NCAA while "Braves" got three schools -- Alcorn State, Bradley and Chowan College in North Carolina -- on the list. Another school, the UNC-Pembroke Braves, received an exemption because it had a historically high percentage of American Indian students.
Chowan and Catawba College, another North Carolina school on the list, both are named after Indian tribes. Catawba uses the moniker "Indians" but does not have a mascot. Spokeswoman Tonia Black-Gold said Catawba is considering an appeal.
"My personal feeling is that sometimes when you open a box, the things that come out are things you don't expect," she said. "I think the NCAA has, frankly, been surprised with all the outcry and uproar."