- The Washington Times - Wednesday, January 4, 2006

TEHRAN — Iran announced yesterday that it would resume atomic fuel research and development next week, raising the specter of a new showdown with the West, which suspects that Tehran wants nuclear technology to build bombs.

The news coincided with strong hints from Iran’s Foreign Ministry that Tehran would reject a Russian compromise proposal aimed at defusing Iran’s nuclear row with the West.

The two developments were likely to spark renewed calls from Washington and the European Union for the case to be referred to the U.N. Security Council, which could impose political or economic sanctions.

“The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran has decided to resume from Jan. 9, 2006, [research and development] on the peaceful nuclear energy program which was suspended,” Iran said in a note delivered to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria.

Diplomats said the move, which follows Iran’s resumption of uranium conversion in August, was a serious blow to diplomatic efforts to resolve the dispute over Iran’s nuclear program.

“This does not help the process,” said an EU diplomat, referring to efforts by the EU trio of Britain, Germany and France to find a negotiated solution to the standoff.

The United States yesterday warned Iran against resuming atomic fuel research.

“If Iran takes any further enrichment-related steps, the international community will have to consider additional measures to restrain Iran’s nuclear ambitions,” State Department spokesman Sean McCormack said in Washington.

The United States has been pressing for months for Iran to be referred to the Security Council for sanctions because it says Iran has failed to dispel suspicions that it is building a nuclear bomb.

A resumption of nuclear research and development, frozen voluntarily by Iran two years ago to defuse international pressure over its atomic ambitions, could include the manufacture and assembly of centrifuges used for uranium enrichment, the most sensitive part of the nuclear fuel cycle. It could also include some small-scale enrichment tests.

The IAEA found in 2003 that Iran had conducted considerable clandestine research, including enrichment tests and centrifuge assembly, since the mid-1980s. But the agency has not detected any clear proof that Tehran wants to build atomic weapons.

A Security Council referral vote could be held at the next meeting of the IAEA’s 35-nation governing board, scheduled for March 6. At its last session in November, the board opted to put off any vote to give time for Russia’s proposal to bear fruit.

IAEA chief Mohamed ElBaradei urged Iran to cooperate more with his agency and to keep diplomatic channels open. Meanwhile, he urged Iran to take “measures to build confidence and enable the resumption of dialogue with all concerned parties.”

Iran, which says its nuclear program will be used only for peaceful purposes, voluntarily suspended atomic research as well as all uranium processing and enrichment under negotiations with the EU trio that began in 2003.

Tehran began to roll back its suspension of nuclear work in August by restarting its uranium conversion plant at Isfahan, prompting the European nations to freeze talks with Iran. The talks resumed in December, and the sides are to meet again this month.

Mohammad Saeedi, deputy head of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization, stressed that the actual enrichment of uranium, done through injecting gas into centrifuges at Iran’s unfinished Natanz facility, would not be resumed for now.

“That will be a separate issue on which no decision has yet been made,” he told Iranian television.

Earlier yesterday, Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi was cool to a Russian proposal aimed at easing Western concerns that Iran could get its hands on bomb-grade, highly enriched uranium.

“The Russian proposal is ambiguous,” Mr. Asefi told a weekly press conference. “If they want to propose enrichment [only] in Russia, we have said it is not acceptable. But if it is a complementary or parallel plan, we will study that.”

A Russian delegation is expected in Tehran on Saturday to hold further talks on the proposal.

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