- The Washington Times - Thursday, August 9, 2007

TORONTO (AP) — Canada’s prime minister began a three-day trip to the Arctic yesterday in an effort to assert sovereignty over the region a week after Russia symbolically staked a claim to the North Pole by sending submarines.

Although Stephen Harper’s visit has been planned for months, it has taken on new importance since the Russian subs dove 2½ miles to the Arctic shelf and planted their country’s flag in a titanium capsule.

“The Russians sent a submarine to drop a small flag at the bottom of the ocean. We’re sending our prime minister to reassert Canadian sovereignty,” a senior government official said on the condition of anonymity because his language was undiplomatic.

Five countries — Canada, Russia, the United States, Norway and Denmark — are competing to secure subsurface rights to the Arctic seabed. One study by the U.S. Geological Survey estimates that the Arctic has as much as 25 percent of the world’s undiscovered oil and gas.

Mr. Harper, who has pledged to spend billions of dollars defending Canada’s sovereignty over the Arctic, is expected to announce the location of a planned military deep-water port later in the week.

“Our government has an aggressive Arctic agenda,” said Dimitri Soudas, the prime minister’s spokesman. “Economic development — unleashing the resource-based potential of the North, environmental protection — protecting the unique Northern environment, national sovereignty — protecting our land, airspace and territorial waters.”

Last month, Mr. Harper announced that patrol ships will be built to guard the Northwest Passage sea route in the Arctic, which the United States insists does not belong to Canada.

U.S. Ambassador David Wilkins has criticized Mr. Harper’s promise to defend the Arctic, calling the Northwest Passage “neutral waters.”

Mr. Harper said last month that the deep-water port will serve as an operating base for naval ships and also will be used for commercial purposes.

Canada has a choice when it comes to defending our sovereignty over the Arctic. We either use it or lose it. And make no mistake, this government intends to use it,” Mr. Harper said.

The disputed Northwest Passage runs below the North Pole from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the Arctic archipelago. As global warming melts the passage — which is navigable only during a slim window in the summer — the waters are exposing unexplored resources, and becoming an attractive shipping route. Commercial ships can shave off about 2,480 miles from Europe to Asia compared with the current routes through the Panama Canal.

Canada also wants to assert its claim over Hans Island at the entrance to the Northwest Passage.

The half-square-mile rock, one-seventh the size of New York’s Central Park, is wedged between Canada’s Ellesmere Island and Danish-ruled Greenland, and for more than 20 years has been a subject of unusually bitter exchanges between the two NATO allies.

Canada and the United States dismissed the Russian flag-planting as legally meaningless.

But Russian researchers also plan to use the dive to help map the Lomonosov ridge, a 1,240-mile underwater mountain range that crosses the polar region. Moscow claims the ridge is an extension of the Eurasian continent, and therefore part of Russia’s continental shelf under international law.

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