DETROIT — Contract talks between the U.S.-based automakers and the United Auto Workers formally begin next month, but the key issue is already clear: Eliminating the roughly $25-an-hour labor cost gap between Detroit and its Japanese rivals.
Industry analysts say that survival of the three U.S. companies is at stake. The three automakers based near Detroit generally pay about 30 percent more per hour in wage, pension and health care costs than Japanese automakers.
And nowhere is it more critical than at Ford Motor Co., which lost $12.7 billion last year and has mortgaged its assets to fund a turnaround plan that includes thousands of job cuts to shrink itself to match lower demand for its products.
Ford, according to its annual report, paid $70.51 per hour in wages and benefits to its hourly workers last year. The company, as well as Chrysler Group and General Motors Corp., will seek to reduce costs to about $48 per hour, about the average hourly cost incurred by Toyota, Honda and Nissan Motor Co., company officials have said.
The costs then would be comparable to Asian automakers, which pay similar wages but have far lower pension and health care costs and make thousands of dollars more per vehicle than the three Detroit automakers.
GM and the UAW have worked together to cut health care costs and reduce the company’s hourly work force by more than 34,000 in the past year through buyout and early retirement offers.
“However, more change is required to structure GM for sustained profitability and growth,” Mr. Flores said.
GM’s annual report says its labor costs average $73.26 per hour, while Chrysler’s costs average $75.86.
Negotiations are set to begin officially in July, but the UAW already is talking to the Big Three.
UAW spokesman Roger Kerson would not comment yesterday, but union President Ron Gettelfinger said in March that it made major health care concessions in 2005 to Ford and GM that saved the companies billions, and implied that the union wasn’t willing to give more. The UAW has completed an evaluation of Chrysler’s finances but won’t say whether it will give Chrysler the same deal.
“We addressed health care in ‘05. You don’t get two bites of the apple, do you?” he said in March.
Many industry analysts say the automakers, especially Ford, must be on par with Toyota and Honda to survive. This year’s contract, they say, must be “transformational” in reducing pension and health care costs.
Chrysler’s parent company, DaimlerChrysler AG, recently announced that it would sell a controlling stake in the company to private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management LP, and analysts have said Cerberus is likely to demand deeper concessions from the union than Daimler would have. Cerberus has said it will leave the negotiations to Chrysler officials.