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Russia appears to be somewhere in between.

“I don’t expect to see more than meddlesome, symbolic displays from Moscow,” said Riordan Roett, a Latin America analyst at Johns Hopkins University.

Michael Shifter, vice president for policy at the Inter-American Dialogue, agreed.

“There’s not a direct interest for Russia in stemming coca production,” he said. “This has to be seen in political terms. From the Russian point of view, this is a response to what the U.S. is doing in the Black Sea.”

Martin Arostegui contributed to this report from Santa Cruz, Bolivia.