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BOOK REVIEW: Today’s ‘most influential’ justice
Question of the Day
AMERICAN ORIGINAL: THE LIFE AND CONSTITUTION OF SUPREME COURT JUSTICE ANTONIN SCALIA
By Joan Biskupic
Sarah Crichton Books/Farrar, Straus & Giroux. $28, 434 pages, illus.
Reviewed by Priscilla S. Taylor
Several years ago, Joan Biskupic, a journalist with a law degree, wrote a splendid biography of Sandra Day O’Connor that was subtitled “How the First Woman on the Supreme Court Became Its Most Influential Justice.” Now that the makeup of the court has swung to the right, Ms. Biskupic has transferred the “most influential” title to another justice, Antonin Scalia, because he has made “originalism” respectable.
At the same time, she writes, much of Justice Scalia’s influence depends on how Justice Anthony M. Kennedy votes. “Overall, Kennedy is likelier to side with the conservatives than liberals, giving Scalia a greater shot at a majority opinion.”
The legal theory of “originalism” that Justice Scalia has been advancing, says the author, insists that “judges should render constitutional decisions based on the 18th century understanding of the text.” Justice Scalia maintains that “the Constitution has a ‘constant’ meaning, one that does not change to fit the needs of a changing society.”
Thus, Justice Scalia has “found no abortion rights, found no room for school prayer and public aid to parochial schools, and yet found strict prohibitions on affirmative action and various legislative rules for election campaign activities.”
The jurist whom the author characterizes as “a combination of Felix Frankfurter and Luciano Pavarotti” and as “the showman of the bench,” began life as the beloved and indulged only child in an entire generation of a close-knit Sicilian immigrant family in Trenton, N.J.
(Perhaps to compensate for his lack of cousins, “Nino” Scalia decided against the priesthood and, with his wife, Maureen, produced nine children; they have, at last count, 30 grandchildren.) He excelled at his Jesuit high school in Manhattan, at Georgetown University and at Harvard Law.
After spending six years with a law firm in Cleveland, he surprised his colleagues there by resigning to teach law at the University of Virginia before moving to Washington to work for the Nixon administration.
It was during his time as an assistant attorney general in the post-Watergate Justice Department, says the author, that he developed important connections and solidified his view “that the executive had broad powers in important areas, by default of sorts, where the Constitution did not say otherwise.”
Justice Scalia spent the Jimmy Carter era teaching at the University of Chicago, but itched to return to Washington. After being interviewed for the job of solicitor general under President Ronald Reagan, he was “bitterly disappointed” when he didn’t get it.
In 1982, he was offered a position on the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, based in Chicago, but held out for the District of Columbia Circuit, which came through later that year.
One of his fellow judges there was Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who hosted a party for him when he joined the court. Justice Ginsburg is quoted as saying, “I was fascinated by him because he was so intelligent and so amusing. You could still resist his position, but you just had to like him.” Four years later they found themselves serving together on the Supreme Court, as Justice Scalia, the first Italian-American ever nominated, was confirmed by a 98-0 vote in a Senate that had worn itself out fighting the nomination of Robert Bork.
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