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The October attack prompted the arrests of dozens of security officials blamed for letting terrorists drive vehicle bombs through multiple checkpoints and roadblocks to reach their targets.

Tuesday’s attack appeared to follow a similar pattern.

Members of the Islamic Supreme Council for Iraq, a third Shi’ite party, called for the interior minister and military officials to come before the parliament as part of an official inquiry.

Nouri al Badran, a former interior minister in 2003 and 2004 under the Coalition Provisional Authority, said Iraq was beset by a competition among intelligence services, its military and the Interior Ministry.

“There is no real accountability and no effective oversight,” he said. “All these different services are competing with each other.”

Mohammed Shareef Ahmed, a Kurdish member of parliament, also blamed Iraq’s security services.

“The parliament today is so angry toward the security services which we feel have failed to prevent these attacks. … We all feel - and all the world feels - that the Iraqi people are fed up of sufferings and something should be done to stop this,” Mr. Ahmed told the Associated Press.

In condemning the attacks, White House spokesman Robert Gibbs said that “there are clearly those who are threatened by” Iraq’s election.

U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called the bloodshed “horrendous.”

U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Christopher Hill and the top U.S. commander, Gen. Raymond Odierno, issued a joint statement promising to help Iraq’s government “bring to justice those individuals or groups responsible for such murder.”

Kenneth Pollack, director of the Saban Center for Middle East policy at the Brookings Institution, said Iraq’s security forces were too compromised to protect the city.

“New democracies need strong, apolitical institutions that the people can count on to stand outside the fray of politics and enforce a disinterested rule of law,” Mr. Pollack said. “Many Iraqis on all sides of the political spectrum fear that their security forces remain both politicized and infiltrated by partisan groups.”