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Ms. Brewer’s predecessor, Janet Napolitano, a Democrat who is now President Obama’s Homeland Security secretary, vetoed proposals similar to the bill just approved by the Legislature.

But she signed a 2007 law that imposes sanctions against employers who knowingly hire illegal immigrants. Other state laws make human smuggling a state crime and restrict illegal immigrants’ eligibility for public services.

The Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund said the bill before Ms. Brewer is unconstitutional because regulation of immigration is a federal responsibility.

Others urging Ms. Brewer to veto the bill include Catholic bishops, New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson, a Democrat, and Arizona Attorney General Terry Goddard, the Democratic Party’s presumptive nominee for governor. Mexico’s embassy also has voiced concerns about racial profiling.

A Phoenix Law Enforcement Association representative acknowledged that racial profiling can occur but said fears associated with the bill are unfounded.

“We’re not targeting any particular group,” said Levi Bolton, a retired police detective. “Cops are not here to do these things to you.”