A presidential decree expected to be issued later Monday will detail the process through which the companies should cease operations, spokesman Waheed Omar told reporters in Kabul.
President Hamid Karzai has said repeatedly in recent months that these companies undermine government security forces, creating a parallel security structure. Contractors perform duties ranging from guarding supply convoys to personal security details for diplomats and businessmen.
The imminent decree expedites action that Mr. Karzai had promised in his inauguration speech in November, when he said he wanted to close down both foreign and domestic security contractors within two years.
“Within four months, all private security companies will be disbanded,” Mr. Omar said, but he declined to go into detail before the decree is released.
The Interior Ministry has 52 security firms licensed, but some older contracts still are being completed by unlicensed firms, according to the U.S. military. There are about 26,000 private security contractors working for the U.S. government in Afghanistan, 19,000 of them with the military, officials said.
As in Iraq, the conduct of security contractors in Afghanistan — particularly those working with U.S. forces — has been a source of tension, with complaints that they are poorly regulated and effectively operate outside local law.
“We are in total support of the president of Afghanistan’s intent to do away with private security companies and to do away with the need for private security companies,” Maj. Joel Harper said. “This should be done in a logical and sequential manner, and as conditions permit.”
The U.S. military set up a task force in June to tighten regulation and oversight of its security contractors, but its top official has stayed away from talk of deadlines.
“Since the Afghan army and the Afghan police are not quite at the stages of capability and capacity to provide all the security that is needed, private security companies are filling a gap,” Brig. Gen. Margaret Boor said Monday before the announcement.
Gen. Boor said private security contractors can be phased out only as the security situation improves — a hard target, given worsening security in recent months in areas of northern and central Afghanistan that previously were relatively safe.
The majority of U.S. military contractors provide base security, though some also protect convoys, Maj. Harper said. He previously said that the majority were involved in convoy protection.
Mr. Karzai has said such responsibilities should fall to either soldiers or police.
Though the U.S. task force is new, Gen. Boor said it already is taking steps to improve oversight of security firms, including registering all contractors and ensuring they have the necessary qualifications and receive training on appropriate use of force.
NATO troops operate under firm rules spelling out conditions under which they can use deadly force.
Private security contractors in Afghanistan are subject to Afghan law, unlike the situation that persisted through most of the war in Iraq, where those working for the U.S. military were immune from prosecution by Iraqi authorities.
Contractors in Iraq lost their immunity when a U.S.-Iraqi security pact took effect Jan. 1, 2009. The move to tighten oversight followed Iraqi outrage over a Sept. 16, 2007, shooting in which 17 Iraqi civilians were killed in a Baghdad square.
The contractor formerly known as Blackwater said its guards were protecting diplomats under attack before they opened fire, but Iraqi investigators concluded the shooting was unprovoked.
Contractors have been in the spotlight on several occasions in Afghanistan.
In 2009, a private security contractor hired to protect the U.S. Embassy in Kabul was exposed for holding lurid parties flowing with alcohol, with guards and supervisors photographed in various stages of nudity. A U.S. government investigation also found Amorgroup employees frequented Kabul brothels.
In February, U.S. Senate investigators said Blackwater hired violent drug users to help train the Afghan army and declared “sidearms for everyone” — even though employees weren’t authorized to carry weapons. The allegations came as part of an investigation into the 2009 shooting deaths of two Afghan civilians by employees of the company, now known as Xe.
Last month, a crowd of angry Afghans shouted “Death to America” after an SUV driven by U.S. contract employees from DynCorp International was involved in a traffic accident that killed four Afghans.
Task Force Spotlight, which Gen. Boor heads, is taking steps to improve oversight of security firms, including registering all contractors and ensuring they have the necessary qualifications and receive training on appropriate use of force.