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The European Union said it would impose an assets freeze and a visa ban on Mr. Gbagbo and his wife after the Sunday deadline elapsed. The United States also is prepared to impose targeted sanctions on Mr. Gbagbo, his immediate family and his inner circle.

Sanctions, though, typically have failed to reverse illegal power grabs in Africa in the past.

On Thursday, Mr. Ouattara called on his supporters to seize key institutions, leading to street clashes that left as many as 30 people dead. Police and troops loyal to Mr. Gbagbo prevented Mr. Ouattara’s supporters from marching on government buildings Friday.

Ivory Coast was once an economic hub because of its role as the world’s top cocoa producer. The civil war split the country in a rebel-controlled north and a loyalist south.

While the country officially reunited in a 2007 peace deal, Mr. Ouattara still draws his support from the northern half of the country, where he was born, while Mr. Gbagbo’s power base is in the south.

Mr. Gbagbo claimed victory in the presidential election only after his allies threw out half a million ballots from Ouattara strongholds in the north, a move that infuriated residents there who long have felt they are treated as foreigners in their own country by southerners.

National identity remains at the heart of the divide. The question of who would even be allowed to vote in this long-awaited election took years to settle as officials tried to differentiate between Ivorians with roots in neighboring countries and foreigners.

Mr. Ouattara himself was prevented from running in previous elections after accusations that he was not Ivorian and that he was of Burkinabe origin.

Associated Press writer Brahima Ouedraogo in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, contributed to this report.