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While they captured or held some congressional districts, Democrats fared badly in statewide elections. In Virginia, Republicans swept the top three state offices, led by Robert F. McDonnell’s 18-percentage-point victory in the governor’s race. In New Jersey, Republican Chris Christie unseated incumbent Gov. Jon Corzine.

Mr. Obama won both of those states easily in 2008, and he won Massachusetts by 26 percentage points. But personal appeals in all three states couldn’t rescue the Democratic candidates.

Lawmakers said voter discontent is palpable.

“I don’t need the Massachusetts race to tell me the psyche of the American people. I just need to go to the grocery store,” said House Majority Leader Steny H. Hoyer, Maryland Democrat. “People are angry.”

Republicans, though, are not certain to benefit, and some party luminaries have warned against misreading the results of the election as an endorsement of Republican alternative policies.

Polling backs up that wariness.

A survey by Democracy Corps, run by former political operatives for Bill Clinton, shows that Democrats remain more popular with voters than Republicans.

“Voters have not rushed to the Republicans, because they still blame George W. Bush and the Republicans for both the state of the economy and the deficits,” the group said in its analysis.

Still, the danger for Democrats is that enthusiasm spurs Republicans to the polls in November while discouraged Democrats stay home.

“We’re not up in the front lines standing up and cheering. So that means a lot of us won’t be putting our energies and our resources into supporting Democrats in the next election, except maybe for the more progressive ones — we’ll pick and choose,” Code Pink’s Ms. Benjamin said.

Not all of the one-year reviews are bad for Mr. Obama.

The League of Conservation Voters said Mr. Obama earned a B-plus for his first year in office by winning House passage last summer of a bill to address climate change and having the Environmental Protection Agency declare carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas that is dangerous to public health.

President George W. Bush earned a D-minus for his first year in office, and President Clinton notched a C-plus.

Mr. Obama got mixed reviews from the American Civil Liberties Union, which criticized his failure to roll back “the privacy-invading domestic security policies enacted by the Bush administration,” but said he has made strides on open-government initiatives, free-speech issues and pro-choice concerns.