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Feds, farmers create habitats for migrating birds
MAMOU, LA. (AP) - Water gurgling from a well is flooding Craig Gautreaux’s rice and crawfish fields, turning the farm into a wetland for migratory birds whose usual Gulf of Mexico wintering grounds are threatened by the oil spill.
Across eight states, farmers such as Gautreaux are inundating fallow fields to provide an alternative for some of the tens of millions of ducks, geese and shorebirds that are beginning to make their way south on a flyway that stretches as far north as Alaska and Iceland.
“Hopefully, we can help,” said Gautreaux, who has dedicated 762 acres about 90 miles inland from the Gulf to the project under a three-year, $132,441 contract that likely will cover his costs but provide little if any profit. “I want to keep the birds around.”
Biologists fear the birds will arrive to spend winter at the Gulf barrier islands, shorelines and marshes only to find these habitats fouled and their food supply depleted.
Government officials hope to have 150,000 acres of manmade wetlands ready by Aug. 15, although they do not know how many birds will use it.
The federal government hasn’t funded anything like this $20 million project before, but farmers and scientists are hopeful the program in the five Gulf states and Arkansas, Georgia and Missouri could work. They note that Gulf-bound birds often stop anyway at their farms, where rice and crawfish fields are already flooded for parts of each season.
“There’s a sense of urgency here,” said Kevin Norton, who heads the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s conservation programs in Louisiana. If the oil causes major die-offs, he said, “that will ripple through the populations for years to come.”
The program is so popular that Texas and Louisiana exhausted their initial funding within weeks and lobbied for more. Texas has now received nearly $6 million under the program and hopes to have all its contracts funded by Aug. 1.
Yet the scheme isn’t likely to be a windfall for the farmers. It’s designed to compensate them for pumping and holding the water, which can be expensive, without generating a profit.
The amount farmers are paid will depend on how much land they devote and the steps they take to make it suitable for birds.
Flooding will cost between $43 and $200 per acre, depending on factors such as water value in a particular area and the condition of the land, said Russell Castro, a biologist with the federal conservation service in Temple, Texas. Some farmers will have to build small levees or dikes.
“Anyone who buys a farm and runs it themselves, I guess you don’t do it to get rich,” said Grantt Guillory, 37, who raises crawfish and soybeans in southern Louisiana’s Atchafalaya River watershed. “You get into it because you’re somewhat of a steward to the environment. I care about these birds and I’m afraid the oil spill is going to devastate some of these species.”
His grant application hasn’t been accepted yet, but he’s turning about 235 marshy acres into wetlands anyway, keeping the area submerged under six to 10 inches of water for a couple of months longer than usual.
Farmers typically rotate which fields they plant, leaving some fallow each year, and the ones being flooded for the birds are generally those out-of-use plots. In some cases, the extra flooding might take place before planting or after harvest.
Some farmers might choose to provide several inches of water and mudflats from July through October, an ideal habitat for shorebirds such as sandpipers and dowitchers. Shallow water on moist soils in August and September could attract early migrating waterfowl such as the blue-winged teal.
By Brahma Chellaney
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