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Mr. Wormeli said that information sharing rules developed for use by domestic law enforcement and intelligence agencies used a system called “federated identity and privilege management … to deal with this exact issue … the privileges any individual has in the system are dictated by their role.”

No one in Pfc. Manning’s position ought to be able to download the amount of data he had without setting off alarm bells, Mr. Wormeli said, “No one without a very high level of privileged access ought to be able to do that.”

Mr. Wormeli said he feared a “chilling effect” on information sharing from the “psychological impact” of the latest round of disclosures, both at an individual and an institutional level.

“It raises people’s concern about the kind of open and transparent information sharing we are advocating for,” he said.

c Bill Gertz contributed to this report.