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Almost all competitive congressional races have candidates who oppose earmarks, and many of them are likely to unseat incumbents. Sen. Robert F. Bennett lost the Republican nomination in Utah to Mike Lee, and Rand Paul appears to be on track to win the seat from Kentucky being vacated by Sen. Jim Bunning, an earmarker.

In Kansas, Rep. Jerry Moran is favored to win the seat left open by Sen. Sam Brownback. Mr. Moran supports a moratorium, his spokeswoman said.

The GOP nominees for Republican-held seats in Ohio, Florida, New Hampshire and Alaska also oppose earmarks.

Meanwhile, Republican candidates in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Nevada and Indiana - where Republicans have a reasonable chance of winning Democrat-held seats - have signed an anti-pork pledge devised by Citizens Against Government Waste.

President Obama, who supported a ban on earmarks during his last year in the Senate, could see his old seat go to an earmark opponent, Rep. Mark Steven Kirk, who became one of the first Republicans on the House spending committee to call for an overhaul of the practice several years ago.

Opponents of earmarks say Congresses of the future likely will have more lawmakers who want to end the practice.

“Whether the House Republicans take the majority or not, their conference is going to be more anti-earmark than it was the day before,” Mr. Ellis said.

That makes the Republican candidates who defend earmarks stand out all the more.

In North Dakota, Gov. John Hoeven, considered a shoo-in to win that state’s open Senate seat, said Congress must distinguish between deserving and undeserving projects. In two other races, Democrats are using earmarks against their GOP rivals.

Robin Carnahan, the Democratic nominee in Missouri, is attacking Rep. Roy Blunt, the Republican candidate, for refusing to swear off the practice. Mr. Blunt’s office did not return calls for comment, but he has defended the practice in the past.

In Arkansas, Sen. Blanche Lincoln, the Democratic incumbent, has attacked Rep. John Boozman, the GOP nominee, for backing the House Republicans’ earmark moratorium this year. In a head-to-head debate in September, Mrs. Lincoln argued that earmarking is one way Arkansas can compete to win federal funding and that the process “is the great equalizer.”

She said Mr. Boozman’s adherence to the one-year moratorium left his congressional district without a voice for transportation projects.

Mr. Boozman, whose campaign didn’t respond to a request for comment, stressed that the earmark moratorium is just for the current fiscal year and wouldn’t bind his hands in the Senate.

“This is just on the House Republican side. This does not apply to the Senate. The Senate Republicans have not decided to do this,” he said at a debate with Mrs. Lincoln last month.

Some earmark opponents worry that Republican leaders will persuade freshmen senators to reverse their positions. But Mr. DeMint, who endorsed or campaigned for many of the candidates, said he thinks they will back up their commitments to voters.

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