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“The [F-16] A/B model has been operational for nearly 20 years, so it is also aging and in need of upgrade as well,” he said. “It also rational and justifiable to actually upgrade those. We are going to be asking for that, and the U.S. government has been notified that this will be another request proposed from our side.”

However, the 66 new F-16s are “an urgent need” and “very much a crucial element for our follow-up defense transformation as well.”

Mr. Yang said of the request for new F-16s that “we are not putting all the apples in one basket. But this is one of the big apples in the basket, so we want to see that the request will be fulfilled, the sooner the better.”

China has not renounced plans to use force to retake the island, which broke with the mainland during the civil war of the 1940s when nationalist forces fled the communists to Taiwan.

Mr. Yang said one likely scenario in any conflict with China would be an amphibious assault, which is why strengthening air power is so important.

“We are acquiring the Black Hawks to enhance our troop mobility and also acquiring the Apache gunships to conduct counterattacks over the amphibious landing operations,” he said, noting that other military modernization are part of what he called “early defense.”

China currently has between 1,200 and 1,400 missiles — cruise and ballistic — near Taiwan, and Beijing has been adding and upgrading the weapons with more accurate systems, he said.

China’s growing “precision strike capabilities over their targets in Taiwan” are “a major concern for us,” he said.

Mark Stokes, a retired Air Force colonel and former Pentagon policymaker for Asia, said selling new F-16s is needed.

“A follow-on sale of additional F-16s is a measured and appropriate response to the PLA’s [People’s Liberation Army] increasingly ambitious force modernization program, and consistent with U.S. legal obligations under the Taiwan Relations Act,” he said.

John Tkacik, a former State Department Asia specialist, said recent tensions between China and Japan over disputed islands have changed some views within the Obama administration on Beijing’s direction.

“Obama’s top Asia policy people are now coming around to the realization that Japan is an absolutely essential ally in organizing our democratic partners in Asia if we hope to balance China’s rise,” he said.

“That has also brought an entirely new rethink of where Taiwan is going. Taiwan is geographically and strategically key to Japan’s defenses in the Western Pacific, and Taiwan’s significant territorial presence in the South China Sea means that it is a key player there, whether we or the Southeast Asians like it or not,” he said.

Mr. Tkacik said the Bush administration refused to acknowledge major shortfalls in Taiwan’s defense, including the fact that F-5s were so old they were crashing regularly.

“I think a modernization of Taiwan’s existing F-16 fleet is a step in the right direction, but it doesn’t answer Taiwan’s main problem that over half of its fighters can’t fight in any kind of showdown with China,” he said.

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