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At each turn, Mr. Espada seemed steps ahead of the more senior members. He remains defiant against the FBI, which raided his clinic, and Attorney General Andrew Cuomo, who accuses him of stealing millions of dollars in grants.

“I just am unafraid,” Mr. Espada once told the Associated Press. “It’s something you have to discipline yourself to.”

Mr. Monserrate’s run for the Assembly to return to Albany ended Tuesday in the race for a vacant seat in the Bronx won by Francisco Moya. Mr. Espada lost to Gustavo Rivera.

In the closing days of the race, Mr. Espada was accused by a tailor in the New York Daily News of stiffing him of $7,200 for six custom-made suits and, through election night, of intimidating voters at the polls. Mr. Espada continues to owe thousands of dollars in fines for campaign law violations and has long been accused of living in the suburbs miles from his Bronx district.

“They have successfully ganged up on me,” Mr. Espada said Tuesday night after he conceded early. But he added: “As I go to sleep and wake up re-energized, I am ready for a new fight.”