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Sen. Jack Reed, a Rhode Island Democrat on the Armed Services Committee, said resolution was critical.

“The most important thing is getting a budget for the year. It lowers the level of uncertainty,” Mr. Reed said.

“The consequences of not having a budget are delay and maybe even deferring important projects at a cost of more money. It’s very inefficient.”

If lawmakers are “truly committed to reducing the deficit,” they have to look at every program, he added.

The bill calls for cuts in 759 defense programs.

Consistent with recent defense legislation, the bill bars the transfer of terrorist suspects held at the Navy-run prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to the United State and prevents construction of facilities in the United States to house detainees.

On foreign aid, the White House and congressional leaders agreed to significant across-the-board cuts.

The U.S. contribution to the United Nations and other international organizations would be cut by $377 million. Pay for Foreign Service officers would be frozen. The Global Agriculture and Food Security Fund, created to fight world hunger and poverty, would get just $100 million, far less than the $408 million Mr. Obama sought.

The negotiators agreed to cuts in the millions for international banks, the U.N. Population Fund and international narcotics control and law enforcement programs.

“It took a big hit, and I think it will cost us a lot more money in the future,” bemoaned Sen. Patrick J. Leahy, Vermont Democrat and chairman of the Senate Appropriations subcommittee that oversees foreign aid.

Some Democrats said the cuts could have been worse, citing what Republicans had done in a House-passed bill in February.

Rep. Nita M. Lowey of New York, the top Democrat on the House Appropriations subcommittee on foreign aid, said she was pleased the agreement fixes “many of the ill-advised cuts” passed by the House.

“Diplomacy and development help avoid military deployments, and civilian aid workers are essential to the success of our armed forces in Iraq and Afghanistan,” she said.

The bill would provide $2.5 billion for the Global Health and Child Survival account, $80 million more than last year. The program tries to protect children from malaria and other diseases and save others in childbirth.

In a major policy win for Mr. Obama and the Democrats, the bill does not include a provision barring U.S. funds to foreign private organizations that use their own money to provide abortion services.