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The appointments process, which could include dismissals or trigger more protest resignations, is expected to take several days.

One of the commanders at the meeting is ensnared in the coup plot investigations. Turkish prosecutors on Friday issued an arrest warrant for Gen. Nusret Tasdeler, army head in the Aegean Sea region, along with 21 other suspects, including six more generals, in an alleged Internet campaign to destabilize the government.

Gen. Tasdeler’s appearance at the meeting with Mr. Erdogan suggested he was in a defiant mood or felt that he had done nothing wrong, although other implicated generals have eventually turned themselves in to prosecutors without resistance.

The Turkish military is involved in NATO operations in Afghanistan and Libya, but it is not directly involved in combat.

The army is also fighting Kurdish rebels concentrated in southeastern Turkey, where militants on Monday killed three soldiers and wounded four others in an attack on a military vehicle.

Rebels affiliated with the Kurdistan Worker’s Party, or PKK, have killed more than 20 Turkish soldiers in intensified attacks over the past two weeks in their campaign for autonomy.

Meanwhile, Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, said Sunday that he expected an “orderly transition” following the military resignations in Turkey.

Speaking to reporters traveling in Afghanistan with him, Adm. Mullen said the U.S. and Turkish armed forces have enjoyed a strong and critical relationship.

“I’ve seen no indication in any of this that the [military] relationship has been affected by this at all,” he said.

Stratfor, a U.S.-based analysis group, said in a report that “a norm of accepting civilian supremacy over the military is beginning to take root.”

However, the report predicted that the military would likely continue to press its views on national security issues and that the ruling party would acquiesce for now.

On a day of symbolism Monday, Mr. Erdogan also showed solidarity with the generals, accompanying them on a wreath-laying ceremony at the mausoleum of national founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, a former army officer and war hero who replaced Islam, a pillar of Ottoman rule, with a state creed of secularism.

The prime minister, in a blue suit and sunglasses, walked ahead, no companion at his side.

The generals trailed behind.