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The Egyptian police force under Mr. Mubarak was notoriously brutal. After the Jan. 25 clashes with protesters, the police vanished from the streets. Now officers can be seen infrequently in public, mostly directing traffic.

Uniformed and plainclothes policemen at the protests blamed former Minister Habib El-Adly for the violence that killed more than 350 people and injured thousands during the revolution. Mr. El-Adly was fired from his post in the early days of the protests and now is banned from travel and under investigation on suspicion of corruption.

Taking a page from the protests that brought down the regime, police said they would continue demonstrating until the minister was held accountable and they are promised a living wage. Police officers now can serve for as many as 10 years and still make less than $100 a month.

“We want our rights and increased salaries so we can better serve the people,” said Officer Hassan Darwish.

A group of about 20 activists followed the police. “You are thieves and killers,” they chanted, occasionally engaging in arguments with the officers.

Egyptian minority groups that participated in the uprising also are asserting themselves. Nubians from southern Egypt say they are glad Mr. Mubarak resigned, but that they do not trust the army to safeguard their rights.

Nubian activist Mohamad Khalil said he plans to campaign for the right to teach the Nubian language in schools, for compensation for lands lost to government projects, and for the right to form viable political parties.

These social justice issues may have been part of the broader goals of the revolution, he said, but they will not come to his people if they sit back and allow leaders to act unchecked.

“I’m still afraid of the military rule,” he said. “I think after five years there will be freedom of expression and an increase in wages and greater freedom of opinion.”

Meanwhile, Egypt has lost $1.5 billion in tourism revenue this year, its banks and stock market remain closed, and the Egyptian pound has hit a six-year low. Many companies have stopped business in Egypt, and foreign investment has dwindled.

Economist Marcus Marktanner said there is no way to tell how long it will take the Egyptian economy to recover. He said he expects unemployment to rise as the government reorders itself.

Egypt has a huge public sector which is largely inefficient and very costly,” he said. “Even if you have nothing but the best intentions and you want to create social safety nets and help the poor, the question is: ‘Where does the money come from?’”

Yet many Egyptians are confident that the economy will strengthen because rooting out corruption is a top priority. Unconfirmed reports say Mr. Mubarak alone has as much as $70 billion stashed in overseas accounts. After his resignation, many protesters chanted, “We want our money back.”

Organizers of the anti-Mubarak demonstrations have called for more than 1 million people to gather in Tahrir Square each Friday until all their demands are met. But some Egyptians say the protests need to stop before life can return to normal.

“We don’t want to make any problems for the other shops,” said shopkeeper Mr. Ataya, who will not attend Friday’s rally. “We made a revolution, OK, and the government gave me what I want. Now I want to work.”

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