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Mr. Simon’s coalition, however, has not endorsed the Senate bill. In a statement, it said the bill still needs to do more “to lessen the growing burden of abusive and unjustified patent infringement claims.”

A group of nine organizations representing small businesses, start-ups and independent inventors has been more forthright in its opposition, saying in a letter to senators that the first-to-file system would have “unique adverse effects” on its constituents.

“The bill favors multinational and foreign firms over start-up firms seeking an initial foothold in U.S. domestic markets, and favors market incumbents over new entrants with disruptive new technologies,” said the letter, signed by groups such as American Innovators for Patent Reform and the U.S. Business and Industry Council.