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Pilot unions have tried unsuccessfully to toughen regulation of battery shipments at meetings of the International Civil Aviation Organization, a United Nations agency that sets aviation safety standards.

And OMB officials have met with U.S. and foreign corporations and their lobbyists. One meeting a year ago was with French battery maker SAFT. The company has factories in Europe, Asia and the United States.

In an example of Washington’s “revolving door” between policymaking and lobbying, one of SAFT’s lobbyists was David Kunz, according to disclosure records filed with the Senate by the Carmen Group, a Washington lobbying firm. Mr. Kunz was chief counsel at the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, the Transportation Department agency that wrote the safety rule, until January 2009 when President Obama took office.

Opponents of the rule stand to benefit from the results of the November congressional elections.

Outgoing House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Chairman James L. Oberstar, Minnesota Democrat, a key advocate for tougher regulation, was defeated in November. When Republicans take control of the House this week, the chairman will be Florida Republican Rep. John L. Mica. SAFT is building a new factory near Jacksonville, Fla., on the edge of Mr. Mica’s congressional district.

Mr. Mica “wants to ensure that we are not overregulating this industry, and damaging our economy or our economic relationships with other countries, all for little to no change in safety,” spokesman Justin Harclerode said.