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There is at least some basis for the milk board promoting further discussion of the issue _ and continuing its campaign.

The advertising was based on studies published in scientific journals in 1999 and 2005 that found a link between calcium consumption and fewer PMS symptoms.

Researchers in the 2005 study followed and recorded the dietary intake of more than 3,000 women for 10 years. None had been diagnosed with clinical PMS when the trial started in 1991, but some got that diagnosis later in the trial.

“We found that the women with the highest intakes of calcium and the highest intakes of vitamin D had the lowest risk of developing PMS during the course of follow-up,” said Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, an associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and one of the researchers behind the study.

She said a substantial amount of the calcium and vitamin D the participants were receiving came from milk and not from dietary supplements. But she said it also is important to note that those nutrients were shown to improve symptoms only in women who had been diagnosed with severe PMS, not in women who were experiencing minor symptoms.

“We don’t know if calcium will work with respect to any symptoms or symptoms of mild severity,” Bertone-Johnson said.

The study was published in the Archives of Internal Medicine and received some funding from GlaxoSmithKline, which manufactures calcium supplements. That industry funding was enough to make other researchers skeptical.

Marion Nestle, a professor at New York University’s Department of Nutrition, Food Studies and Public Health and author of the blog “Food Politics,” said dairy products are not an essential nutrient.

“The dairy industry lobbies ferociously to make sure dairy stays prominently in dietary guidelines,” Nestle said in an email. “I never pay attention to any study sponsored by the dairy industry or drug companies.”

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Online:

California Milk Processor Board campaign, http://gotdiscussion.org/#/