JOHANNESBURG — Regulators have approved Wal-Mart Stores Inc.’s $2.4 billion bid to buy a controlling share of a South African chain. The ruling followed a fierce debate over protectionism in the country with the continent’s most promising economy.
Unions and government officials are worried that the arrival of the world’s biggest retailer will hurt jobs and local manufacturing.
In its ruling, the Competition Tribunal, the government agency charged with promoting competition and protecting consumers, said Wal-Mart and the South African retailer Massmart could not lay off any workers for two years, must respect Massmart’s existing labor agreements for three years and must invest in training South African suppliers.
Wal-Mart and Massmart already had agreed to take the steps regarding layoffs and union agreements. They also pledged to spend about $14 million over the next three years to help farmers and other South African suppliers gear up to do business with Wal-Mart.
The Congress of South African Trade Unions, a key ally of the governing African National Congress, called the tribunal’s approval “almost unconditional” and said Tuesday that its leaders will meet in late June to plan a campaign of marches, demonstrations, pickets and stay-aways to try to keep Wal-Mart out.
It said some losers were inevitable among South African retailers and producers as a result of the decision, but that it chose a path it hoped would make South Africans more competitive.
Arkansas-based Wal-Mart operates in Europe, Asia and across the Americas. Its interest in coming to Africa for the first time has been seen as a vote of confidence not just in South Africa’s economy, but in the continent’s potential.
Wal-Mart CEO and President C. Douglas McMillon said after Tuesday’s ruling that he expects the transaction to be completed in a few weeks and that Wal-Mart would help Massmart with a planned expansion he said would create 2,000 to 3,000 jobs over the next few years.
Massmart CEO Grant Pattison, who will continue in that role with the merged company, said shoppers would not see immediate changes in stores that will retain their South African names, but that new products and lower prices would be introduced steadily.
The unions and the government departments of trade, agriculture and economic development had argued that Wal-Mart would flood South Africa with cheap foreign goods, forcing other retailers to do the same and putting local manufacturers out of business.
Wal-Mart and Massmart say their critics’ case relied less on evidence than fear. Wal-Mart fought for the deal before the tribunal and before the public, setting up a South African website to make its case.
Seeraj Mohamed, director of an economic research unit at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand, was unconvinced.
“Once Wal-Mart enters your economic system, it’s like having a really strong and virulent weed or fish,” he said in an interview. “They come in and totally change the environment, and other species die out.”