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The smaller the early stars, the smaller the explosions, Bromm noted, and the less capability for dispersing heavy elements _ i.e. metals _ into the universe via end-of-life stellar explosions, or supernovas.

His own team at Austin reached similar findings, recently, on the diminished size of early stars.

“Ten times the solar mass. Still, by all standards, very massive,” Bromm said, “but a little less massive” than initially thought.