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While blaming Republicans for the impasse on the supercommittee, White House officials also noted repeatedly that deficits will be cut anyway as mandated in the legislation that created the panel. But they said it would be preferable for Congress to specify cuts.

Earlier Monday, Mr. Obama seized on the only victory to date from his $447 billion jobs bill, signing legislation that gives businesses tax breaks for hiring veterans and waives a withholding fee for government contractors.

“Today, because Democrats and Republicans came together, I’m proud to sign those proposals into law,” Mr. Obama said in a signing ceremony at the Old Executive Office Building of the White House. “My message to every member of Congress is, keep going. Keep working.”

Among the lawmakers appearing at the signing ceremony with Mr. Obama was Sen. Scott Brown, the Massachusetts Republican who authored the withholding tax repeal legislation. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, Kentucky Republican, had asked the president to invite Mr. Brown as a show of bipartisanship.

The president will hit the road again Tuesday, traveling to New Hampshire to promote another portion of his jobs legislation. He will advocate Tuesday for an expanded payroll tax cut, another feature of his jobs package.

He urged lawmakers to work on the proposal with “no politics, no delays, no excuses.”

When a reporter at the event asked for Mr. Obama’s reaction to the supercommittee “throwing up its hands,” Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., who also attended the ceremony, smiled broadly and threw up his hands in a mock gesture but made no comment.

On stage with Mr. Obama were supercommittee co-chair Sen. Patty Murray, Washington Democrat, and Sen. Max Baucus, Montana Democrat.

The president said lawmakers should approve an extension of payroll tax cuts because families can’t take another hit in the fragile economy.

“If Congress doesn’t act by the end of the year, then the typical family’s taxes is going to go up by roughly $1,000,” Mr. Obama said. “That’s the last thing the middle class and our economy needs right now. It is the last thing that our veterans need right now. So let’s keep at it. Keep finding more ways to put partisanship aside and put more Americans back to work.”