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While most rulings over the Affordable Care Act have split along party lines, with Republican-appointed judges generally opposing the individual mandate and Democrat-appointed judges generally favoring it, Judge Silberman was appointed by President Reagan. Judge Edwards was appointed by President Carter.

Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh, appointed by President George W. Bush, dissented, saying the court did not have jurisdiction to rule on the case.

The White House has asked the Supreme Court to rule on the challenges during its current term, before Mr. Obama seeks re-election next November. Spokeswoman Stephanie Cutter applauded the Tuesday ruling, expressing confidence that the Supreme Court will reach the same conclusion.

“The ruling is yet another victory for the millions of Americans who are already benefiting from the law, including the parents of children with pre-existing conditions, women getting mammograms with no out-of-pocket costs, seniors saving hundreds of dollars on their prescription drugs, and 1 million young adults now newly insured through their parents’ plan,” she said.