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The U.S. Chamber of Commerce also pushed hard against the bill.

“The bill proposes a variety of temporary tax incentives that at best are unproven or at worst have failed to create permanent new jobs,” wrote chamber Vice President for Government Affairs R. Bruce Josten in an open letter to senators.

Mr. Obama, who lobbied hard for the plan, vowed that Tuesday’s vote “is by no means the end of this fight.” He said that he will work with Mr. Reid to try to get at least portions of the package through Congress.

“With each vote, members of Congress can either explain to their constituents why they’re against common-sense, bipartisan proposals to create jobs, or they can listen to the overwhelming majority of American people who are crying out for action,” he said.

Republican lawmakers say they are willing to consider some aspects of the president’s proposal, such as payroll-tax cuts, but they also favor other measures, such as cutting what they consider onerous regulations and expanding domestic oil and gas production.

“Now it’s time for both parties to work together and find common ground on removing government barriers to private-sector job growth,” said House Speaker John A. Boehner, Ohio Republican.

Another option for Democrats is a proposal by Mr. Reid to move forward with a revised version of the president’s plan that calls for a new 5.6 percent surtax on those with incomes of at least $1 million, with the revenue used to pay for the jobs-stimulus package.

The surtax is designed to win support from wavering Democrats who had opposed Mr. Obama’s bill because of tax increases they said would hurt charitable giving and could bite small businesses. Targeting those making $1 million a year is seen as a more politically palatable option.

But Mr. Reid’s proposal likely will come up against strong opposition from Republicans, who generally reject tax increases of any kind.

Sen. Orrin G. Hatch of Utah, the senior Republican on the Senate Finance Committee, said last week that the proposed surtax, like a similar one for couples earning at least $1 million that was rejected by the previous Congress, would trickle down to hurt small businesses.

“The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, expecting different results,” Mr. Hatch said. “This tax hike was a bad idea in 2009, and it’s a bad idea today.”