In the run-up to the 2012 elections, the federal government is ordering that 248 counties and other political jurisdictions provide bilingual ballots to Hispanics and other minorities who speak little or no English.
That number is down from a decade ago after the 2000 census, which covered 296 counties in 30 states. In all, more than 1 in 18 jurisdictions must now provide foreign-language assistance in pre-election publicity, voter registration, early voting and absentee applications as well as Election Day balloting.
The latest requirements, mandated under the Voting Rights Act, partly reflect second and third generations of racial and ethnic minorities who are now reporting higher levels of proficiency in English than their parents.
Effective this week, Hispanics who don't speak English will be entitled to Spanish-language election material in urban areas of political battleground states including Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wisconsin, Utah and Florida. For the first time, people from India will get election material in their native language, in voting precincts in Los Angeles, Chicago and New York, due to their fast population growth.
More American Indian tribal languages will be made available in many parts of Alaska, Arizona and Mississippi, while Vietnamese and Taiwanese will get their own voting assistance in several new areas, including parts of Washington state, Texas, Massachusetts and California.
"We would like to be in a society where everyone has equal opportunities to vote, but that's not the reality we're living in today," said James Thomas Tucker, a former Justice Department attorney who is now a voting rights lawyer in Las Vegas.
Mr. Tucker said the law has been key in the election of new Hispanic and Asian officials in many places, even as he noted that a vocal official-English language movement and new budget constraints on local governments could stir fresh tensions.
"Some jurisdictions will see pushback," he said.
The Voting Rights Act provision, first approved by Congress in 1975, requires states, counties and political subdivisions to supply versions of ballots and election materials in other languages if a Hispanic, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan minority group makes up more than 5 percent of the voting-age population or at least 10,000 citizens.
The minorities must be unable to speak or understand English well enough to vote in elections, a proficiency level determined by those who indicate in census surveys that they don't speak English "very well." The minority group also should have literacy rates ranking below the national average.
In all, 248 counties and other political divisions must provide election materials involving 68 covered languages, according to the list released Wednesday by the Census Bureau. It was the first decline in the total number since the bureau began compiling the list with English-proficiency criteria in the 1980s.
Under a separate provision of the Voting Rights Act, some 200 other jurisdictions are already required to provide bilingual material, including the entire states of Alaska, Arizona and Texas. With the newest additions this week, the total number of counties or subdivisions with requirements is more than 1 in 18.