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“I’m hoping the hatred settles down, now that there is a process moving forward,” Mr. O’Mara said.

Before Ms. Corey’s news conference, streets in downtown Jacksonville were blocked off and security was heightened in anticipation of unrest following the announcement. Gov. Rick Scott urged Floridians to handle the news with calm.

“This matter is now in the hands of the judicial system, and I am confident justice will prevail,” Mr. Scott, a Republican, said in a statement after the charges were announced.

“As the process continues, it is critical that we be patient and allow the proceedings to move forward in a fair and transparent manner,” he said. “I thank State Attorney Angela Corey for her diligence in conducting a thorough investigation. We will all continue to look for answers to the Trayvon Martin tragedy.”

White House spokesman Jay Carney said in advance that President Obama would have no reaction to the charges. Mr. Obama commented on the case March 23, after the case was already under investigation by the Justice Department and FBI, saying that if had a son, “he’d look like Trayvon.”

“I certainly don’t expect you’ll hear from him about an ongoing investigation,” Mr. Carney said. “I think that he and I, and others, will refrain from commenting on it.”

Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. said Wednesday that the Justice Department is continuing to probe into whether the case merits federal civil-rights charges, although he acknowledged that it would have to meet a “high bar” to warrant federal action.

“I know many of you are greatly — and rightly — concerned about the recent shooting death of 17-year-old Trayvon Martin, a young man whose future has been lost to the ages,” Mr. Holder told the National Action Network at its 14th annual convention, which focused on the Martin case.

“If we find evidence of a potential federal criminal civil-rights crime, we will take appropriate action,” Mr. Holder said. “I also can make you another promise: that at every level of today’s Justice Department, preventing and combating youth violence and victimization is, and will continue to be, a top priority.”

Trayvon’s father, Tracy Martin, who attended the conference, said before the charges were announced that he had vowed to make sure that his son’s death “was not in vain.”

“I can recall calling attorney [Benjamin] Crump. Attorney Crump told me not to worry about it, that they were going to arrest him,” Mr. Martin said. “It’s 44 days later, George Zimmerman is still walking free. It’s 44 days later, my son is still in a mausoleum.”

The case has placed the spotlight on Florida’s “stand your ground” law, which gives citizens greater latitude in using lethal force in self-defense. In a news conference Wednesday in New York, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and black leaders said they planned to launch a national campaign against “stand your ground” laws.

“You just cannot have a civilized society where everybody can have a gun and make their own decisions as to whether someone is threatening or not,” Mr. Bloomberg said.

In the police report, Mr. Zimmerman, a neighborhood watch volunteer, said he was approached as he walked to his truck by Trayvon. The report says the two exchanged words and Trayvon jumped on top of him, causing him to fall to the ground, punched him in the nose and began beating his head against the sidewalk.

Before the fight, Mr. Zimmerman had called 911 to report a suspicious person walking through the community. In a tape of the call, Mr. Zimmerman says “This guy looks like he’s up to no good.”

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