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Analysts argue that the challenge for Libya is setting up a stable democratic system.

“Their major problem now is that the country is in the hands of armed rebels and armed groups,” said Mr. Salem.

“Generally, they are well intentioned. They waged the revolution and are protecting their neighborhood towns and cities. But these are armed militias nonetheless, and they get into fights, and it’s not the best way to guarantee security.

“But I think Libya will succeed,” he added. “Generally the Libyans share a wide measure of consensus about what they want; and while there are some tribal and regional differences, they are not major or deep.”

With all the turmoil, and deep local dissatisfaction since the revolutions, analysts say it will take time for the Arab world to calm.

“There is a great deal of dust, and the challenge for all of us is not to be blinded by the dust,” said Mr. Gerges.

“It is going to take a long time for the dust to settle. A new world is being born before our eyes.”