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The industry also faces the potential impact of U.S. and European anti-dumping measures in response to complaints Beijing improperly subsidizes companies. Foreign competitors complain that allows Chinese suppliers to sell abroad at unfairly low prices, wiping out American and European jobs abroad — an explosive issue at a time of high unemployment.

In July, a group of 25 producers of solar gear, including companies from Germany, Italy and Spain, filed an anti-dumping complaint with the European Union.

That alarmed Chinese companies, which warned Beijing would retaliate, possibly triggering a trade war.

“Over 60 percent of products are exported to Europe,” said Wang Shuai, a spokeswoman for Yingli. “If the anti-dumping measures really take effect in Europe, that would be a fatal blow to the industry.”