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Specific line items are also likely to get extra scrutiny.

Senators are sending $5.4 billion to the Army Corps of Engineers and $12.1 billion to the Transportation Department, with the bulk going to rebuild public transit in the affected areas or to pay for projects that could prevent problems in other transit systems.

The Senate bill added $50 million for the National Park Service’s Historic Preservation Fund — which would double its yearly funding — and would even waive the requirement that recipients match the money with their own funds.

Mr. Ellis said it also reduces the requirements for matching funds with Army Corps of Engineers projects.

“This is not about leveraging state and local funds; this is all about getting Uncle Sam doing this work,” he said, adding that lowering matching requirements could skew the way localities prioritize projects.

Part of the bill rewrites emergency spending to incorporate lessons learned after Hurricane Katrina, when those on the ground said bureaucratic red tape made aid slow and burdensome.

The bill also spends millions of dollars to replace federal agency vehicles damaged in the storm, including three branches of the Homeland Security Department and four branches of the Justice Department.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, which is part of Homeland Security, requested $855,000 to replace 40 vehicles, while the Secret Service asked for $300,000 to replace vehicles and communications equipment damaged by flooding.

In the Justice Department, the FBI requested $4 million to replace vehicles, equipment and furniture, while the Drug Enforcement Administration requested $1 million to replace 15 sedans and hatchbacks that were destroyed in the storm, as well as to repair damage to radio towers and other information technology equipment.