Trimming supersized dining with half-orders, plate color trickery

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Call it the alter-ego of supersizing.

Researchers infiltrated a fast-food Chinese restaurant and found that up to a third of diners jumped at the offer of a half-size of the usual heaping pile of rice or noodles - even when the smaller amount cost the same.

Giant portion sizes are one of the culprits behind the epidemic of bulging waistlines, and nowhere is the portion-creep more evident than in restaurants with French fry-heavy meal deals or plates overflowing with pasta. Now scientists are tapping into the psychology of eating to find ways to trim portions without people feeling cheated - focusing on everything from the starchy sides to the color of the plates.

“The small Coke now is what used to be a large 15 years ago,” laments psychologist Janet Schwartz, a marketing professor at Tulane University who led the Chinese food study. “We should ask people what portion size they want,” instead of large being the default.

Restaurants are paying close attention, says prominent food-science researcher Brian Wansink of Cornell University.

His own tests found children were satisfied with about half the fries in their Happy Meal long before McDonald’s cut back the size, and the calories, last year.

“We’ll be seeing some very creative ways of downsizing in the next couple of years,” predicts Mr. Wansink, author of “Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think.”

But let’s call it “right-sizing,” says Duke University behavioral economist Dan Ariely. Right-size suggests it’s a good portion, not a cut, he says.

Couldn’t someone just get a doggie bag? Sure, if he has the willpower to stop before the plate is mostly clean. Lots of research shows Americans don’t, but tend instead to rely on visual cues about how much food is left, shoveling it in before the stomach-to-brain signal of “Hey wait, I’m getting full” can arrive.

So Ms. Schwartz and Mr. Ariely tested a different approach: Could we limit our own temptation if we focus not on the main reason we visited a restaurant - the entree - but on the side dishes? After all, restaurants can pile on calorie-dense starches like rice or pasta or fries because they’re very inexpensive, filling the plate so it looks like a good deal, Ms. Schwartz says.

A popular Chinese franchise at Duke University, with a mix of students, staff and visitors to the campus hospital, allowed the researchers in at lunchtime.

In the serving line, customers pick the rice or noodles first. The standard serving is a whopping 10 ounces, about 400 calories even before ordering the entree, says Ms. Schwartz. There was no half-size option on the menu board.

In a series of experiments, servers asked 970 customers after their initial rice or noodle order: “Would you like a half-order to save 200 calories?” Those who said yes didn’t order a higher-calorie entree to compensate. Weighing leftovers showed they threw away the same amount of food as customers who refused or weren’t offered the option.

A 25-cent discount didn’t spur more takers. Nor did adding calorie labels so people could calculate for themselves, the researchers report in this month’s journal Health Affairs - concluding the upfront offer made the difference.

Anywhere from 14 percent to 33 percent chose the reduced portions, depending on the day and the mix of customers.

Copyright 2014 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

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