Staples is now the world’s largest office-supply company, employing 90,000 workers worldwide, but in the 1980s it was a startup having trouble attracting investors — until it came to Bain Capital, an investment firm founded and run at the time by Mitt Romney.
“When we started raising money, it was a little bit hard,” Mr. Stemberg told The Washington Times. “Once Bain and one or two other guys signed up to do it, there were at least 20 firms that wanted to make an investment. The reason we chose Bain is because money is fungible. What’s not [fungible] is the amount of value an investor can add and Bain, in the case of Staples and I’m assuming in other situations, was as high a value-added investor as I have ever worked with.”
The story of Staples — and a string of other companies the former Massachusetts governor once backed — is likely to be at the center of the U.S. political narrative for the next week, as Mr. Romney’s presidential rivals try to use his business resume against him ahead of the possible make-or-break South Carolina Republican primary vote Jan. 21.
Staples’ success has become a part of Mr. Romney’s chief pitch to voters — as head of Bain Capital from 1984 to 1999, he led an economic investment engine he says spawned 100,000 jobs. As president, he says, he could do it again on a broader scale — for the whole country.
But Bain began to shift over the years, doing less on the venture capital side to create companies and more on the private equity side to buy, break down, repackage and sell off struggling companies. It is that side of his business background that has taken center stage in recent days as Democrats and some of his fellow Republican presidential hopefuls accuse him of being part of a “destruction” side of capitalism’s “creative destruction.”
“Bain, at times, engaged in behavior where they looted a company,” former House Speaker Newt Gingrich said at a debate Sunday. Texas Gov. Rick Perry followed that up by likening private equity firms to “vultures” that feast on companies, collecting profits for themselves while issuing pink slips to workers.
Among other household names Bain backed were Sports Authority and Domino’s Pizza, as well as Steel Dynamics and Bright Horizons, which now manages child day care centers.
Along the way, Mr. Romney made a personal fortune reported to be about $200 million.
Steven Neil Kaplan, a professor at the University of Chicago School of Business, told The Times that Bain was “among the best among private equity investors” and said it garnered a solid record of accomplishments.
“When you make investments, some of your investments go well, and some of your investments don’t go well,” Mr. Kaplan said. “What everyone is focusing on is the investments that didn’t go well. In some of their investments, one of the ways you make a company more valuable is you buy businesses that are not well-managed and you make them very productive and more efficient, and that sometimes means cutting jobs.”
The Wall Street Journal this week took a closer look at 77 businesses in which Bain invested while Mr. Romney led the firm. Of those, the Journal said, 22 percent closed or filed for bankruptcy within eight years of Bain’s investment.
Bain also produced what the Journal called “stellar returns for its investors,” though the bulk of those came on a few major investments. Of the top 10 companies that produced those returns, four later landed in bankruptcy court, though many of the firms with which Bain was involved did emerge from bankruptcy eventually.