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Mr. Gray says he is concerned about the increasing rat population around the tent-filled McPherson Square, which no longer has food-service operations and relies on donated prepared food.

On Friday, Mr. Gray, a Democrat, demanded in a letter that “at a minimum” the McPherson camp be consolidated into neighboring Freedom Plaza along Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest to “allow for the elimination of the rat infestation, clean up, and restoration” of the downtown park.

Rep. Darrell E. Issa, California Republican and chairman of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, told the Interior Department — which oversees the National Park Service — that he would use “compulsory processes” if the agency fails to answer questions by Jan. 24 about why it allowed the park to be damaged.