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Republicans argue that his policies have done more to hurt the economy and kill jobs than help middle-class Americans.

The partisan rancor, which has only intensified during budget debates over the past year, was on vivid display during the address.

Republicans pointedly balked when the president mentioned the Buffett plan — a proposal to raise taxes on the top income brackets. It is named after billionaire investor Warren Buffett, who has publicly said the nation’s wealthiest Americans such as himself should pay more in taxes to help the country balance its books.

Mr. Obama offered a couple of issues on which he said he hopes he and Congress can work together, including tax reform and comprehensive immigration reform, but he warned lawmakers that he intends to continue going it alone and taking his ideas straight to the American people if they hit a brick wall on Capitol Hill.

While he stressed that far more needs to be done to jump-start the economy, the president took credit for helping to create more than 3 million jobs in the past 22 months and spurring the creation of American manufacturing jobs for the first time since the late 1990s. Under his watch, the U.S. auto industry has begun to turn around, and the country’s domestic oil production is at its highest level in eight years, he said, pointedly avoiding any discussion of his decision to reject the Keystone XL oil pipeline permit.

Republicans say the Keystone decision cost the country tens of thousands of jobs and increased the nation’s dependence on foreign oil. House Speaker John A. Boehner of Ohio highlighted GOP unhappiness by inviting workers who would benefit from the Canada-to-Texas pipeline as his guests in the chamber.

Mr. Obama also touted new rules to hold Wall Street accountable, as well as the agreement he and Congress reached to cut the deficit by more than $2 trillion — although the two sides have since hit a roadblock in finding the savings to clinch the deal.

“Let’s never forget: Millions of Americans who work hard and play by the rules every day deserve a government and a financial system that do the same,” he said. “It’s time to apply the same rules from top to bottom: no bailouts, no handouts, and no cop-outs. An America built to last insists on responsibility from everybody.”

Although jobs and the economy dominated the speech, the president also addressed housing and college affordability as part of his overall message of a return to fairness. On the foreign policy front, he took credit for ending the war in Iraq and authorizing the mission that killed bin Laden.

The script of Mr. Obama’s speech appeared to have been completed only shortly before he spoke. Lawmakers usually get nicely printed booklets with the text, but on Tuesday they read along from computer printouts.

Mr. Obama, meanwhile, read from teleprompters, punctuating his points with gestures.

Within the room, his speech lacked the energy of previous addresses.

The address was interrupted by applause more than 70 times, and the applause lines broke down along decidedly more partisan lines than usual. In fact, the speech was nearly 20 minutes old before the first bipartisan standing ovation, and that came when Mr. Obama praised American workers.

The timing of the speech, less than 10 months before November’s elections and in the middle of one of the most intense Republican primary battles in modern history, has served only to raise its political stakes, and the president was moving quickly to reinforce his pitch with voters.

Twelve hours after the address, Mr. Obama plans to embark on a furious three-day tour of five election battleground states — Iowa, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Michigan.

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