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Fueling the issue is Colorado’s status as a battleground state in the November election. Because recent immigrants tend to vote Democratic, Democrats have accused Republicans of trying to disenfranchise voters, while Republicans say they want to protect the integrity of the process.

Of the 5,000 potentially illegal Colorado voters, about 2,000 have already cast ballots in elections. At the same time, some of them may have become citizens since they first registered to vote, leaving state officials reluctant to remove them from the rolls without more information.

Both Mr. Gessler and Mr. Suthers are Republicans, as are the elected officials from the other 11 states supporting the effort Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, New Mexico, Ohio, Washington and Utah.