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Mr. Putin and the king met in a conference hall on the shores of the Dead Sea. Later, Mr. Putin inaugurated a Russian guesthouse in the baptismal site in the nearby Jordan River where tradition says Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist.

Jordan’s banned Tahrir, or Liberation Party, condemned Mr. Putin as an “enemy who is not welcome in Jordan.”

It called Putin “an archenemy of Islam and Muslims,” citing his close ties to Mr. Assad. “His visit to Jordan is an arrogant challenge to the feeling of Muslims and a disdain of innocent blood shed in Syria.”

On Monday, Mr. Putin met with Mr. Netanyahu, who urged Russia to step up pressure on Iran to curb its suspect nuclear program.

At a state dinner Monday, Israeli President Shimon Peres pressed Mr. Putin further, asking that he “raise his voice” against a nuclear Iran. Mr. Putin responded by saying that Russia has a “national interest” to secure peace and quiet in Israel but did not elaborate further.

Jamal Halaby in Amman, Jordan, contributed to this article.