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Meanwhile, digital-rights campaigners say plans to go after people visiting the websites, rather than those producing the sites, are wrongheaded.

“The first thing that needs to be established is what is legal or not. If somebody is generating content that is illegal, then the person who is committing that offense is the person that you should go after, not the people who, for whatever reason, end up on a particular website reading it,” said Joe McNamee of Digital Civil Rights in Europe.