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Eleven Democrats bucked the president to side with all 45 Republicans who voted Thursday.

Minutes earlier, the chamber rejected another proposal that would have pushed the pipeline but insisted it be built with U.S. labor and materials, and would have required that all of the oil shipped through it be sold only in the U.S.

“This oil is not going to be going to the United States. It’s going to be going to the export market,” said Sen. Ron Wyden, the Oregon Democrat who tried to force the U.S.-only provisions.

Without Keystone, many senators said, Canada likely will build a pipeline west rather than south, carrying the oil to the Pacific Ocean where it is likely to be bought by China.

The pipeline issue is bound to return, particularly since House Republicans are eyeing ways to push their own Keystone bill through their chamber. Also, Republican presidential candidates have blasted Mr. Obama for rejecting the pipeline and vowed to make it a major issue in the fall campaign.

In other action, the Senate reversed course from last year and rejected Mr. Coburn’s amendment, which would have tried to find $10 billion in savings from agency duplication. His proposal would have required the administration to pick $10 billion in cuts from a list of projects where the government’s auditor says two or more agencies overlap.

The amendment also gained a majority 52-46 vote, but that too fell short of the 60 votes needed.

It marks a slide from last year, when a similar amendment requiring the administration to use the reports to cut $5 billion passed the Senate. It later died when the bill to which it was attached was pulled from the floor without final approval.

Last week, the auditors at the Government Accountability Office released their second duplication report finding that the government could save tens of billions of dollars a year if it streamlined programs.