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A Lebanese soldier shot the men, apparently after they failed to stop at an army checkpoint. The killing fueled deep anger over the perceived support of some of Lebanon’s security forces for the Syrian regime.

Syria had troops on the ground in Lebanon for nearly 30 years until 2005 and still has strong ties to Lebanon’s security services.

Earlier this month, the arrest of Shadi Mawlawi, an outspoken Lebanese critic of Mr. Assad, set off several days of clashes in northern Lebanon that killed eight people.

Mr. Mawlawi was accused of belonging to a terrorist group.

On Tuesday, authorities released him from jail on $330 bail, a move many hoped would defuse tensions.

During a news conference in the northern Lebanese city of Tripoli, Mr. Mawlawi said he was “subjected to psychological pressure and torture” following his May 12 arrest and was forced to give false confessions that he was connected to terror groups.

Mr. Mawlawi denies any links to such groups.

As he spoke, supporters at the news conference lashed out at the Syrian regime, saying, “Assad is the enemy of God.”

There is an array of die-hard pro-Syrian parties and politicians in Lebanon, as well as support for the regime at street level.

But there is an equally deep hatred of Mr. Assad among other Lebanese, who fear Damascus is still calling the shots in their country.

The tensions can be traced in part to Syria’s virtual rule over Lebanon from 1976 to 2005, when Syrian troops were driven out.

During the time of Syrian dominance, Lebanese leaders used to travel frequently to Damascus to get marching orders.