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Hamas has sided with the Syrian opposition, which is comprised largely of members of the Muslim Brotherhood, while Iran still strongly backs Mr. Assad, whose Alawite sect is a Shiite offshoot.

In August, Gazan Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh declined an invitation to attend the 16th summit of the Non-Aligned Movement hosted by Iran.

Iran does not feel that it can trust Hamas as much as it once did, and Hamas does not feel as much beholden to Iran as it once did because it is able to secure more independent funding,” Mr. Levitt said.

But he added that Iran never stopped funneling weapons to Hamas, even as it disagreed with the militant group over Syria.

Iran did virtually cut off funding to Hamas during this period, said Kenneth Katzman, a specialist in Middle Eastern affairs at the Congressional Research Service.

“The relationship [between Hamas and Iran] has become a lot more shaky in the past year,” Mr. Katzman said.

“I think Iran is trumpeting its support to Hamas as a way to try to win Hamas back into its orbit,” he said. “Tehran regrets that Hamas fell out of an alliance with Iran in 2011 and 2012, and so Tehran may be trying to repair that schism to some extent and to burnish its own credentials as a center of resistance against Israel and the United States.”

Smuggling operation

With Syria’s civil war dragging on into its 20th month, Iran appears less confident about the longevity of the Assad regime and has started to shore up its other alliances, including with Hamas, analysts said.

Meanwhile, Israeli officials say Iran smuggles weapons to Palestinian militants from its port of Bandar Abbas to Sudan, north into Egypt and onward through the Sinai Peninsula to the Gaza Strip.

On Oct. 24, a Sudanese weapons factory in Khartoum was destroyed in what is thought to have been an airstrike.

Sudanese officials blamed the attack on Israel. Israeli officials neither confirmed nor denied bombing the arms factory.

U.N. Security Council Resolution 1747 prohibits Iran from exporting arms.

“Any shipment of rockets to Hamas, Hezbollah [in Lebanon] or Syria is a violation of that sanctions regime,” Mr. Katzman said. “It adds to the argument that Iran has no intention of complying with U.N. Security Council resolutions.”

Hamas is a much more dangerous foe with the Fajr-5 in its arsenal, according to some analysts.

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