- Associated Press - Wednesday, November 28, 2012

VAALKOP DAM NATURE RESERVE, South Africa — By the time ranchers found the rhinoceros calf wandering alone in this idyllic setting of scrub brush and acacia, the nature reserve had become yet another blood-soaked crime scene in South Africa’s losing battle against poachers.

Hunters killed eight rhinos at the private Finfoot Game Reserve inside the Vaalkop Dam Nature Reserve this month with single rifle shots that pierced their hearts and lungs.

The poachers’ objective: the rhinos’ horns, cut away with knives and popped off the dead animals’ snouts for buyers in Asia, who pay the U.S. street value of cocaine for a material they believe cures diseases.

That insatiable demand for horns has sparked the worst recorded year of rhino poaching in South Africa in decades, with at least 588 rhinos killed so far, their carcasses left to rot in private farms and national parks.

Without drastic change, game trackers warn that soon the number of rhinos killed will outpace the number of calves born – putting the entire population at risk in a nation that is the last bastion for the prehistoric-looking animals.

“This is a full-on bush war we are fighting,” said Marc Lappeman, who runs the Finfoot reserve with his father, Miles, and has begun armed vigilante patrols to protect the remaining rhinos there. “We here are willing to die for these animals.”

Unchecked hunting nearly killed off all the rhinos in southern Africa at the beginning of the 1900s. Conservationists in the 1960s airlifted rhinos to different parts of South Africa to spread them out.

That helped the population grow to the point that South Africa is now home to about 20,000 rhinos – 90 percent of all rhinos in Africa.

From the 1990s to 2007, rhino poachings in South Africa averaged about 15 a year, according to a recent report by the wildlife trade-monitoring network Traffic.

In 2008, however, poachers killed 83 rhinos and by 2009, the number hit 122, the report says.

The killings grew exponentially after that: 333 in 2010, 448 in 2011 and as of Tuesday, at least 588 rhino killed this year alone, according to South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs.

Insufficient protection

“That the year-on-year rhino poaching losses have continued to grow in the face of heightened awareness, constant media attention and concerted law enforcement effort is testament to just how pervasive and gripping the rhino crisis in South Africa has become,” Traffic wrote in its August report. “If poaching continues to increase annually as it has done since 2007, then eventually deaths will exceed births and rhino numbers in South Africa will start to fall.”

Most of the killings, according to government statistics, occur in South Africa’s massive Kruger National Park, covering 7,500 square miles in the country’s northeast, abutting its borders with Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

There, the impoverished slip across the park’s borders, largely from Mozambique, to kill and dehorn rhinos, earning the equivalent of months’ wages in a single night of hunting.

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