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“We’re very unhappy with this,” Mr. Vogler said.

He suggested they make the videos available on crowd-sourcing caption websites, such as universalsubtitles.com, and also allow automated transcription tools, such as those on YouTube, to work on the videos.

Web-chat programs such as Skype also will be required to allow captioning under the law, though the video-chat companies needn’t set up the service themselves. If a deaf customer wants captioning, he could find a third party to provide that service through voice technologies or other future developments.

Furthermore, the law does little to help the blind community, deaf advocates point out, because it does not require audio descriptions online, which help paint the picture for viewers that can’t see.

Mr. Stout said the FCC “is not seeming to meet us eye-to-eye.” But he said the real problem lies with Congress, and his organization is working with legislators to rewrite the rule to account for these loopholes.

He called for compromise, and said he understands it can be “a little bit overwhelming” for companies to catch on. “We’ll have to go for more later.”

The FCC did not return requests for comment, and the National Association of Broadcasters declined to comment.