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“If you try to somehow quantify the overall impact Obamacare will have on American citizens, the percentage of the impact people have felt to date is minuscule,” said Michael Franc, vice president for government studies at the conservative Heritage Foundation. “The vast majority of the impact will be felt in the future.”

Both sides are convinced that when that time comes, Americans will end up agreeing with them.

Democrats predict that the law will dramatically expand access to health care coverage while scaling back costs, while Republicans say its regulations will damage businesses and bankrupt government.

Given the sheer size of the 1,000-page health care overhaul, educating the public about what is in the law remains a challenge for both sides.

“It’s really, really hard to let a voter know exactly what the connection is between some outcome and the source of that outcome,” Mr. Franc said. “It’s hard sometimes to draw those connections for people — what percentage of [the price of] a glass of beer is taxes and how much of gas prices are profits, versus other things.”