- Associated Press - Sunday, September 2, 2012

STOCKHOLM — Global warming has ignited a rush to exploit Arctic resources — and Greenpeace is determined to thwart that stampede.

Employing the same tactics it has used against nuclear testing or commercial whaling, the environmental group is now set on preventing oil companies from drilling for oil near the Arctic’s shrinking ice cap.

The campaign took off in May 2010, when oil was gushing from a ruptured well in the Gulf of Mexico. At the time, Greenpeace was startled by reports that a small Scottish energy firm was proceeding with plans to drill for oil and gas in iceberg-laden waters off western Greenland.

“It felt slightly surreal,” said Ben Ayliffe, now the head of Greenpeace’s campaign against oil drilling in the Arctic. “After what happened in the Gulf of Mexico, how can anyone respond to that by going to drill in similar depths in a place called Iceberg Alley?”

Greenpeace quickly arranged to get a ship to Greenland, where four activists attached themselves to a drilling rig for two days until a storm forced them to abandon the protest.

That stunt, a similar one in 2011 off Greenland and protests last month at an oil rig off northwestern Russia are at the core of what Greenpeace calls “one of the defining environmental battles of our age.”

Spreading a simple message

“Polar work feels like it’s going back to the early campaigns: simple message, people get it and the lines are very clearly drawn,” Mr. Ayliffe said.

From a publicity standpoint, the campaign has been successful: Greenpeace officials said 1.6 million people since June have signed the group’s online petition urging world leaders to declare the Arctic a global sanctuary, off limits to oil exploration and industrial fishing. Dozens of celebrities, including Robert Redford, Paul McCartney and Penelope Cruz have announced their support, said Greenpeace activist Sarah North.

“I have never experienced engaging famous people at this kind of rate and with such ease in a campaign issue,” said Ms. North, a 15-year veteran at Greenpeace.

The impact on the oil industry, however, is unclear. The Arctic is thought to hold up to a quarter of the world’s undiscovered oil and gas reserves. Despite difficult operating conditions and high costs, the payback for Royal Dutch Shell PLC, Gazprom OAO, Statoil and other companies searching for commercial quantities of hydrocarbons could be huge.

“It probably sounds a bit cynical. But if they invest billions of dollars, it’s not likely they will give it up just because somebody is attacking their oil rig,” said Mikhail Babenko, an oil and gas specialist at the World Wildlife Fund’s Global Arctic Program.

Unlike Greenpeace, WWF is not seeking a complete ban on drilling in the Arctic but wants to make sure the most vulnerable areas are protected.

“We want to be part of this discussion,” Mr. Babenko said. “We don’t want to stimulate oil and gas development. But if we follow [Greenpeace‘s] approach, we will be simply out of the game.”

Greenpeace and other environmental groups say an oil spill in the Arctic could cause irreparable damage to wildlife and marine ecosystems.

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