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John Wilson, senior vice president of Dairy Farmers of America, said passing a five-year bill is critical to help dairy farmers avoid a repeat of 2009, when the then-failing economy wrecked havoc on farmers, and “to ensure a future for the industry.”

The two trade groups, along with several other influential agriculture-related outfits — including the American Farm Bureau — have united to form the Farm Bill Now coalition that is pushing Congress to pass a long-term bill. The group held a rally on the Capitol grounds last week.

This is the second time in five years a farm bill has expired without a replacement, as the 2002 version lapsed at the end of September and before the first of several short-term extensions passed in December 2007. A long-term deal wasn’t finalized until 2008.

But the scenario in 2007 appeared less dire, as it wasn’t an election year and Democrats controlled both chambers of Congress.

Mrs. Stabenow said she isn’t interested in passing a short-term extension when Congress returns to Capitol Hill in November, saying nothing short of a long-term comprehensive farm bill will do.

“If we can keep everybody focused on that when we’ll actually be able to get it done,” she said. “Right now I’m really not putting together a Plan B.”

House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, California Democrat, expressed doubt that Mr. Boehner would even take up a farm bill this year, speculating he may push the matter to the next Congress in January.

“Not to have a farm bill is an irresponsible approach. It’s not as if it took us by surprise,” said Mrs. Pelosi during a Thursday briefing with reporters. “There is great disappointment in farm country on this issue.”