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“Given this record of Iranian aggression without nuclear weapons, just imagine Iranian aggression with nuclear weapons. … Who among you would feel safe in the Middle East? Who’d be safe in Europe? Who’d be safe in America? Who’d be safe anywhere?” Mr. Netanyahu added.

Speaking after Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas accused Israel of waging a campaign of “ethnic cleansing” against Palestinians, Mr. Netanyahu said “libelous speeches at the U.N.” will not solve conflicts.”

Peace will come only with a “demilitarized Palestinian state that recognizes the one and only Jewish state,” he said.

Mr. Netanyahu opened his address by making the case for the historical right of the Jewish people to exist in the Middle East. “The Jewish people have come home. We will never be uprooted again,” he said.

On Tuesday, Mr. Ahmadinejad said Israel’s right to exist is not rooted in history and referred to the Israeli government as “fake.”

Mr. Obama and Mr. Netanyahu last spoke by phone on Sept. 11. That call was hastily arranged after Mr. Netanyahu’s thinly veiled criticism of Mr. Obama for not taking a tougher position on Iran.

The White House said after that hourlong phone conversation that the two leaders “reaffirmed that they are united in their determination to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon and agreed to continue their close consultations going forward.”

• Guy Taylor in Washington contributed to this report.