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From 2005 to 2011, only one case was recorded in Fairfax County of a human contracting rabies, said Glen Barbour, a spokesman for the Fairfax County Health Department.

After the attack at Lake Barcroft, animal control officers are canvassing the surrounding neighborhoods to distribute information about rabies to residents. The county health department advises residents to keep pets’ rabies vaccinations up to date and for people to report any animal bites to health care professionals.

The neighborhood association also is advising the more than 1,000 families who live in the area and have access to the lake to stay out of the water.

“We have suggested that for now people not go swimming,” Ms. Determan said.